Achmad Kautsar


Introduction: Transmission dominance of HIV/AIDS in Indonesia is caused by risky sexual activities and needle sharing behavior. West Java ranks fourth in case of HIV/AIDS among 33 other provinces. Individual’s behavior in performing risky sexual acts or drugs using can be affected by factors of social and economic status.

Methods: This research uses cross-sectional survey. The subjects were injecting drug users in Bandung. Sampling is respondent-driven method. This study collects 222 respondents. Collected data were analyzed using logistic regression test. The strength of the effect expressed in odds ratios and marginal effect is used for the interpretation.

Results: Individuals who work have marginal effect of -0,2422 (CI, -0,445 to -0,392) smaller than individuals who do not work, income has marginal effect of 0,375 (CI, 0,0928 to 0,657) for income under Rp.500.000,00. Individual’s income between Rp.1.500.000,00-Rp.2.000.000,00 has value of marginal effect is 0,236 (CI, 0,015 to 0,456), and income between Rp.2.000.000,00-Rp.2.500.000,00 has marginal effect of 0,261 (CI, 0,0025 to 0,52). Duration of use syringe has marginal effect of 0,235 (CI, 0,121 to 0,349) higher compared to the duration of use under 12 years.

Conclusion: Socioeconomic status can affect the potency of HIV infection. The government should encourage the drug user community to participate in activities which aims to reduce the risk of HIV/AIDS. 


HIV, injecting drug users, social economic status

Full Text:



Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh, Majid Rezazade, Mohammad Nafarie, Babak Moazen, Mosaieb Yarmohmmadi Vasel, and Shervin Assari. 2012. “Unprotected Sex with Injecting Drug Users among Iranian Female Sex Workers: Unhide HIV Risk Study.” AIDS Research and Treatment 2012 (January): 651070. doi:10.1155/2012/651070.

Becker, Gary S ., Michael Grossman, and Kevin M . Murphy. 2007. “An Empirical Analysis of Cigarette Addiction.” An Empirical Analysis of Cigarette Addiction 84 (3): 396–418.

Bezabhe, Woldesellassie M, Gregory M Peterson, Luke Bereznicki, Leanne Chalmers, and Peter Gee. 2013. “Adherence to Antiretroviral Drug Therapy in Adult Patients Who Are HIV-Positive in Northwest Ethiopia: A Study Protocol.” BMJ Open 3 (10): e003559. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003559.

Bloom, David E. 1995. “The AIDS Epidemic and Economic Policy Analysis by Ajay S . Mahal , Barnard College April 1995 Discussion Paper Series No . 728 The AIDS Epidemic and Economic Policy Analysis,” no. 728.

Chikovani, Ivdity, Ketevan Goguadze, Sudit Ranade, Mollie Wertlieb, Natia Rukhadze, and George Gotsadze. 2011. “Prevalence of HIV among Injection Drug Users in Georgia.” Journal of the International AIDS Society 14 (1). BioMed Central Ltd: 9. doi:10.1186/1758-2652-14-9.

Dinas Kesehatan Kota Bandung. 2012. “Profil Kesehatan Kota Bandung,” 19–58.

Durevall, Dick, and Annika Lindskog. 2014. “Intimate Partner Violence and HIV in Ten Sub-Saharan African Countries: What Do the Demographic and Health Surveys Tell Us?” The Lancet Global Health 3 (1). Durevall et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-SA: e34–43. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70343-2.

Green, Lawrence W. 1979. Health Education Planning: A Diagnostic Approach. 1st editio. Mayfield Pub Co.

Greene, W.H. 2003. Econometric Analysis ( Fifth Edition Ed.). Prentice Hall.

Grossman, Michael. 1972. “On The Concept of Health Capital and The Demand for Health.”

Gujarati, Damodar. 2004. Basic Econometrics. Fourth Edi. McGraw Hill.

Hajizadeh, Mohammad, Drissa Sia, S Jody Heymann, and Arijit Nandi. 2014. “Socioeconomic Inequalities in HIV/AIDS Prevalence in Sub-Saharan African Countries: Evidence from the Demographic Health Surveys.” International Journal for Equity in Health 13 (1). International Journal for Equity in Health: 18. doi:10.1186/1475-9276-13-18.

Hakim, Ahmad Luqman. 2013. “Analisa Cost-Effectiveness Dari Intervensi Terapi Rumatan Metadon Terhadap Epidemi HIV/AIDS Di Provinsi Jawa Barat.” Universitas Padjadjaran.

Iskandar, Shelly, Diba Basar, Teddy Hidayat, Ike M P Siregar, Lucas Pinxten, Reinout Van Crevel, Andre J A M Van Der Ven, and Cor A J De Jong. 2010. “High Risk Behavior for HIV Transmission among Former Injecting Drug Users : A Survey from Indonesia.”

Kesehatan, Kementerian, and Republik Indonesia. 2013. “Estimasi Dan Proyeksi HIV/AIDS Di Indonesia Tahun 2011-2016.”

Kitagawa, E.M. and P.M. Hauser. 1973. Differential Mortality in the United States: A Study in Socioeconomic Epidemiology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Krathwohl, David R. 2002. “A Revision of Bloom ’ S Taxonomy :” Theory Into Practice 41 (4): 212–18. doi:10.1207/s15430421tip4104.

Mayer, Kenneth H, Lei Wang, Beryl Koblin, Sharon Mannheimer, Manya Magnus, Carlos del Rio, Susan Buchbinder, et al. 2014. “Concomitant Socioeconomic, Behavioral, and Biological Factors Associated with the Disproportionate HIV Infection Burden among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in 6 U.S. Cities.” PloS One 9 (1): e87298. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087298.

Mugusi, Ferdinand M, Saurabh Mehta, Eduardo Villamor, Willy Urassa, Elmar Saathoff, Ronald J Bosch, and Wafaie W Fawzi. 2009. “Factors Associated with Mortality in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis.” BMC Public Health 9 (January): 409. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-409.

National, Indonesia AIDS Commission 2012. 2012. Republic of Indonesia Country Report on the Follow up to the Declaration of Commitment On HIV/AIDS (UNGGASS).

Neaigus, Alan, Maureen Miller, V Anna Gyarmathy, and Samuel R Friedman. 2011. “HIV Heterosexual Sexual Risk from Injecting Drug Users among HIV-Seronegative Noninjecting Heroin Users.” Substance Use & Misuse 46 (2-3): 208–17. doi:10.3109/10826084.2011.521473.

Peltzer, Karl, and Supa Pengpid. 2013. “Socioeconomic Factors in Adherence to HIV Therapy in Low- and Middle-Income Countries” 31 (2): 150–70.

Santerre E., Rexford and Stephen P. Neun. 2010. Health Economics. Fifth Edit. South-Western.

Stormer, Ame, Waimar Tun, Lisa Guli, Arjan Harxhi, Zinaida Bodanovskaia, Anna Yakovleva, Maia Rusakova, et al. 2006. “An Analysis of Respondent Driven Sampling with Injection Drug Users (IDU) in Albania and the Russian Federation.” Journal of Urban Health : Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 83 (6 Suppl): i73–82. doi:10.1007/s11524-006-9105-y.

Sukanto, Soerjono. 2004. Sosiologi Suatu Pengantar. Jakarta: Grafindo Persada.

Sumintardja, Elmira N, Lucas WJ Pinxten, Juke R.L. Siregar, Harry Suherman, Rudy Wisaksana, Shelly Iskandar, Irma A Tasya, and Zahrotur Hinduan. 2003. “Behavioral Aspects of HIV Prevention and Care in Indonesia : A Plea for a Multi-Disciplinary , Theory- and Evidence- Based Approach,” 79–86.

Suntoyo, D. 2011. Metodologi Penelitian Ekonomi. Yogyakarta: CAPS.

Undaradjan, Dominikus Dolet. 2013. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif. Atma Jaya.

West Java Government of Indonesia. 2012. “Jawa Barat Dalam Angka (Jawa Barat in Figures),” 563.

Widjaja, Felix F, Caroline G Puspita, Ferdi Daud, Ienag Yudhistrie, Marita R Tiara, and Christopher S Suwita. 2007. “Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence and Its Determinants in Selected Regions in Indonesia,” 50–55.

Wooldridge, Jeffrey M. 2009. Introductory Econometrics. Fourth Edi. South-Western.

Yan Li, MD, Ph.D, MS Roger Detels, MD, MPH Peng Lin, MD, MD MS Xiaobing Fu, MD Zhongming Deng, MD Yongying Liu, MD Yihe Tan, MD Jie Li, and MD PhD Zunyou Wu. 2011. “Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Sexually Transmitted Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Female Sex Workers in Guangdong Province, China.” NIH Public Access 53 (Suppl 1): 1–12. doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181c7d72f.Prevalence.

Yayasan Spiritia.2014.“HIV/AIDS.”


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Review of Indonesian Economic and Business Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

E-ISSN : 2502-244X

P-ISSN: 20871392

Economic Research Center - Indonesian Institute of Sciences
Pusat Penelitian Ekonomi - Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia
Widya Graha, 4th Floor, Jln. Gatot Soebroto 10 Jakarta