STUDI ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNETS CURVE DI ASIA: SEBELUM DAN SETELAH MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

  • Sri Indah Nikensari Departemen Ekonomi, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Sekar Destilawati Departemen Ekonomi, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Siti Nurjanah Departemen Ekonomi, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia
Keywords: subjective well-being, environmental economics, Kuznets Curve, GDP per capita

Abstract

Pencemaran lingkungan dapat menurunkan kesejahteraan subyektif (subjective well-being). Studi ini bertujuan membuktikan berlakunya hipotesis Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) di negara-negara berpendapatan tinggi dan menengah Asia, juga untuk menganalisis perbedaan pengaruh GDP per kapita, konsumsi energi, dan populasi penduduk pada emisi CO2 di wilayah yang sama pada periode sebelum dan setelah MDGs. Data diperoleh dari World Bank dengan periode waktu 1987-2014, di mana analisisnya menggunakan metode kuantitatif dan expose facto, dan melalui persamaan regresi data panel guna mencapai tujuan penelitian. Hasil penelitian membuktikan bahwa sampai 2014 hipotesis EKC yang berbentuk U-terbalik belum terjadi di negara-negara high income yang diteliti, namun akan terjadi ketika GDP per kapita sudah mencapai USD 51.44 ribu. Sedangkan di negara-negara lower middle income, pola hubungan antara GDP per kapita dan emisi CO2 masih membentuk kurva U, atau dengan kata lain hipotesis EKC belum akan terjadi di negara-negara ini, karena di beberapa negara tersebut masih dalam tahap awal pembangunan. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa sebelum MDGs (tahun 2000), GDP per kapita, konsumsi energi dan jumlah penduduk di negara-negara high income berkontribusi atas naiknya emisi CO2, namun pasca MDGs ditetapkan, meningkatnya GDP per kapita mampu menurunkan emisi CO2. Sedangkan di negara-negara low middle income, di awal penelitian sebelum MDGs, data menunjukkan bahwa CO2 sudah tinggi pada saat GDP per kapita masih rendah, dan pasca MDGs, kenaikan GDP per kapita masih berkontribusi atas meningkatnya emisi CO2.

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Published
2019-12-31
How to Cite
NikensariSri Indah, Sekar Destilawati, and Siti Nurjanah. 2019. “STUDI ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNETS CURVE DI ASIA: SEBELUM DAN SETELAH MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS”. Jurnal Ekonomi Dan Pembangunan 27 (2), 11-25. https://doi.org/10.14203/JEP.27.2.2019.11-25.
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Article